Already at the beginning of the 20th century there appeared the first ministries that were supposed to solve the social problems at the state level. First of all they were urged to deal with the questions of public health services, hygiene, demography, migration and social insurance.France has a complicated public health care system that unites private and state establishments that provide for medical services and financing. The system is based on the principle of compulsory medical insurance (80 % of the population do possess this kind of insurance). The compulsory insurance is substantially supplemented by a voluntary one. The wide spectrum of almost all kinds of medical services is accessible both in hospital and in the out-patient sectors. Management of public health services system in France is directly carried out by the government. It is responsible for activity of public health services in general, but also it provides social security, supervises the work of financing organizations and of state hospitals, and at the same time takes care of medical training.
At the local level there are 22 regional medical authorities. Their main task is to plan and to control the medical and social aid within the limits of the annual budget. They assure the social insurance stability and supervise the distribution of hi-tech methods of treatment and diagnostics. As well as in many other European countries, the quantity of doctors in France has sharply increased from 60 thousand in the late sixties up to 185 thousand at the beginning of the 21st century. The doctors – patients proportion is 3 to one thousand, which is excellent in comparison with other European countries (Great Britain – 3 to 1800, Germany – 3 to 3400, Italy – 3 to 5900).